Red Seal Propolis Toothpaste uses New Zealand Bee Propolis to aid in the promotion of healthy teeth and gums. Propolis is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. It is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. It has been found to have antibacterial & anti-inflammatory properties, and has likewise been scientifically proven to protect against common mouth & gum problems. The use of Red Seal Propolis Toothpaste, with regular and proper brushing, may also help prevent receding gums and infections, such as gingivitis and mouth ulcers. Note: Non-fluoride. Natural colours and flavours. Contains natural herbal extracts and oils. With Propolis protection for gums. Flights plaque and decay. Anti-bacterial action. Mild minty taste. Brush teeth regularly and properly to achieve maximum effect. Some people may be allergic to bee products. If irritation occurs, discontinue use immediately. Ingredients: Calcium carbonate; Water (deionised); Sorbitol; glycerol, Sodium lauryl sulphate; Silicone dioxide, Essential oils (including Eucalyptus, Aniseed, Peppermint, Menthol crystals & Propolis); Titanium dioxide; Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; Magnesium aluminium silicate; Sodium saccharin; Hydroxy benzoates.